Coal Impoundment Construction using the Upstream Method Fine coal refuse is transported to an impoundment in slurry form and discharged along the upstream toe of an existing embankment. The deposited fine refuse eventually forms a beach near the existing embankment and above the pool elevation. In upstream construction, this beach is used as the foundation for subsequent embankment stages.
MSHA Dam Safety Program Facility Configuration and Construction Method: In addition to using hazard potential as a classification, impoundments and dams are also classified based on their configuration and development/construction staging.
Design and Construction of Water Impounding Plugs This guide is about the design and construction of watertight (hydrostatic) plugs in working mines. It sets out good engineering practice in relation to the design and construction of such plugs to guarantee their long-term security and in so doing avoid risks to workers from the rapid flooding that would follow a catastrophic failure of a plug or the strata around it.